Verbal morphology of the passive (Hungarian)

PassSynt: Passive constructions are synthetic.

(1) bence könyv-et olvas.

Bence book-acc read.prs.3sg

‘Bence is reading a book.’

(2) a könyv olvas-tatik (bencé-től / bence által).

the book read-pass.prs.3sg Bence-abl / Bence by

‘The book is being read by Bence.’

(3) a könyv-et el-olvas-ták.

the book-acc read-pst-obj.3pl

‘The book was read.’

(4) a könyv el van olvas-va.

the book pref be.prs.3sg read-conv

‘The book is read.’

In Hungarian, the passive suffixes are the following morphemes: ­-atik, -­etik, ­-tatik, ­-tetik. However, these forms are not productive (2). The passive meaning is usually expressed by third person plural constructions (3) or the adverbial participle + substantive verb construction in contemporary Hungarian (Lengyel 2000b: 88, Kenesei et al. 1998: 203‒204, 282‒284, F. Gulyás 2012, 2013).


Nikolett F. Gulyás