CauseVBal: The verb of a reason clause obligatorily appears in base form.
CauseVDrk: The verb of a reason clause obligatorily appears in a single special form, regardless of its grammatical features.
(1) āmp ēʟti paltami-man miša jūx-a xūŋxəmt-əs.
dog from get_frightened-conv Misha tree-lat climb-pst.3sg
‘Misha climbed up a tree because he got frightened by a dog.’ (F. L.)
(2) miša wertoľot-n nox at ū-s-a śit ūrǝŋ-ǝn luw wōš-a at mān-s.
Misha helicopter-loc up neg pick-pst-pass.3sg that way-loc he town-lat neg go-pst.3sg
‘Misha didn’t go to the town because the helicopter didn’t pick him up.’ (S. O.)
In Synja Khanty, causal relations can be expressed by participle constructions (1) or subordination (which entails the connective śit ūrǝŋǝn ‘that way’) (2). The typical clause order in the latter construction is subordinate clause – main clause (cf. Honti 1984: 102‒106, Nikolaeva 1999a: 45‒49). Neither the participle construction, nor the subordination containing two finite verbs differ from non-causal subordinate sentences.