Marking of function S on pronouns (Synja Khanty)

Neutr: Case alignment is neutral: the functions S, A, and P are not marked morphologically.

NoSMark:   The function S is not explicitly marked, while P, A, or both are marked. S is therefore marked with a zero (∅) morpheme.

(1) ńax-l-ǝm.

I laugh-prs-1sg

‘I’m laughing.’ (S. O.)

(2) pox ńax-l.

boy laugh-prs.3sg

‘The boy is laughing.’ (S. O.)

(3) luw pisma xanš-l.

(s)he letter write-prs.3sg

‘(S)he is writing a letter.’ (S. O.)

(4) luwel kaš-l-em.

I (s)he.acc look_for-prs-obj.1sg

‘I’m looking for him/her.’ (S. O.)

(5) šaŋkǝp-l-ajǝm.

I sweat-prs-pass.1sg

‘I’m sweating.’ (M. L.)

In Synja Khanty, the S (1) and the A (2)–(3) roles are marked by the nominative case in the active voice, nominal P’s are unmarked (3), while pronominal ones are marked (4). The verb form agrees with the subject in person and number (Honti 1984: 88, 93‒96, Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒34, 38‒39, Solovar 2009, 2010, Kulonen 1989). Perception and change-of-state intransitive verbs often appear in passive constructions (5) where the S is in the nominative in contrast to the A which takes the locative case in a passive construction. (M. L., S. O., F. L.).


Nikolett F. Gulyás