NPPonly: The recipient is exclusively marked by the explicit use of the noun or an independent pronoun; no other strategies exist.
NPPobl: The recipient is obligatorily marked by the explicit use of the noun or an independent pronoun, but other strategies also exist.
Agr: The recipient is marked by morphosyntactic verb agreement.
In Hungarian, niether the substantial, nor the pronominal recipient is marked on the verb.
(1) laura egy fülbevaló-t ad szilvi-nek.
Laura an earring-acc give.prs.3sg Szilvi-dat
‘Laura is giving a pair of earrings to Szilvi.’
(2) laura egy fülbevaló-t ad nekem.
Laura an earring-acc give.prs.3sg I.dat
‘Laura is giving a pair of earrings to me.’
Some ditransitive verbs (e.g. meglep ‘to surprise somebody’, megajándékoz ‘to give a present’) require their recipients to be in the accusative form, thus the verb is agreed with them (3)–(5). In this case, the real theme takes the instrumental case ending:
(3) laura meg-ajándékoz-za szilvi-t egy fülbevaló-val.
Laura pref-give_present-prs.obj.3sg Szilvi-acc an earring-ins
‘Laura is giving a pair of earrings to Szilvi as a present.’
(4) laura meg-ajándékoz engem egy fülbevalóval.
Laura pref-give_present-prs.3sg I.acc an earring-ins
‘Laura is giving a pair of earrings to me as a present.’
(5) én meg-ajándékoz-lak téged egy fülbevaló-val.
I pref-give_present-prs.2obj.1sg you.acc an earring-ins
‘I’m giving you a pair of earrings as a present.’
The conjugation of the verb, whether it is indeterminate (1)–(2), (4)–(5) or determinate (3), depends on the definiteness of the grammatical object in this construction type too. It means that there is morphological agreement between the verb and the recipient object of the clause.