CauseV: Causal relationships are marked by a special verb form in the reason clause.
CauseWV1: Causal relationships are exclusively and obligatorily marked by an independent word (referent) in the main clause.
(1) am ľēkkar pāγ min-as-um, puŋk-um aγminǝγ ōl-ne maγǝs.
(2) am ľēkkar pāγ min-as-um, tuw oma-m-n ťet-im maγǝs.
(3) miša ūs-n ta urǝl at min-as, wertaljot-n at ūntt-uw-es.
In Northern Mansi, participle constructions are used typically to express causation. The constructions with the participle (1) and the gerund (2) always require an element meaning ‘because’ to appear in the subordinate clause (cf. Sz. Kispál 1966).
Apart from the above-mentioned constructions, there is a third type, which contains two finite verbs and a relative pronoun (3). In the example, the passive form of the verb is used, thus the second lative marks the agent and the ta urǝl element functions as a relativizer.