VInfCase: Case is marked on nouns; some case affixes attach directly to nonfinites as well, such that the inflected nonfinite serves a nonnominal (e.g., adverbial) function.
(1) pīťəŋkəli jaqə jowət-m-aʌ-a jāst-əɣ.
bird in come-pst.ptc-3sg-lat say-pst.3sg
’The bird came in and said…’ (Csepregi 1998: 66.)
(2) mā ənəʌ ʎāʎ-nam mən-m-am-nə inə jēŋ ürəkkə ʌāpət ɔ̄ʌ-a körɣ-əm.
I big war-apr go-pst.ptc-1sg-loc only ten out seven year-lat fall-pst.1sg
’When I went to the great war, I was only seventeen.’ (L. N. K.)
(3) ʌüw jaŋkiʌ-t-aʌ-i īmi-ʌ kāt ńēwrem-ɣən toj.
he travel-prs.ptc-3sg-abl wife-3sg two child-du-pst.3sg bear
’While he was travelling, his wife gave birth to two children.’ (Koškareva–Pesikova 2006: 35.)
(4) mā īkə-ŋ-kə jəɣ-m-am-ɣə pūnsi-ja əntə jaŋqiʌ-əm.
I husband-adj-tra become-pst.ptc-1sg-tra Punsi-lat neg go-pst.1sg
’Since I got married, I haven’t been to Punsi.’ (L. N. K.)
(5) ʌüw waʌ-t-aʌ-at qɔ̄t wär-əm.
he who-prs.ptc-3sg-fin house build-pst.1sg
’I built a house for him.’ (Karjalainen–Vértes 1964: 289.)
(6) mā wont-nam mən-ʌəɣ-am-nə ār ʌīwpəs ʌīťatə-ʌ-əm.
I forest-apr go-neg.ptc-1sg-loc lot food prepare-prs-1sg
’Before I go to the forest, I prepare a lot of food.’ (L. N. K.)
In Surgut Khanty, the infinitive and the gerund cannot get suffixes, and the conditional participle can only take person markers. However, case-marking affixes can be attached to general participles and negative participles. The morphological structure of participle is stem+PPx+Cx, which means that the case-marking suffixes are typically attached to the personal affix on the stem. The following case marking affixes can appear at the end of Surgut Khanty participles: lative (1), locative (2), ablative (3), traslative (4), instructive-finalis (5). The negative participle can get the locative case-marker (6). Participles mainly substitute temporal subordinate clauses, but sometimes they also fulfill the function of adverbial clauses of cause or purpose.