PT–R: The objects of monotransitive and ditransitive verbs are marked the same way; the recipient is marked differently.
PR–T: The patient of a monotransitive verb and the recipient of a ditransitive verb are marked the same way; the theme of a ditransitive verb is marked differently.
VAgrPTnoR: The verb codes agreement with P and T the same way; agreement with R is not coded.
VAgrPRnoT: The verb codes agreement with P and R the same way; agreement with T is not coded.
(1a) āŋki lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wə-ʌ. āŋki ńēwrem-əʌ ńāń-at mə-ʌ.
mother shop-loc bread buy-prs.3sg mother child-3sg bread-ins give-prs.3sg
‘The mother is buying bread in the shop. The mother is giving bread to her child.’ (L. N. K.)
(1b) āŋki ńēwrem-əʌ-nat lɔ̄pka-nə woʌ. ńāń wəj, ńēwrem-əʌ ńāń-at
mother child-3sg-com shop-loc be.pst.3sg bread buy.pst.3sg child-3sg bread-ins
‘The mother was in the shop with her child. She brought bread and gave it to the child.’ (L. N. K.)
(2a) āŋki lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wə-ʌ. āŋki ńēwrem-a ńāń mə-ʌ.
mother shop-loc bread buy-prs.3sg mother child-lat bread give-prs.3sg
‘The mother is buying bread in the shop. The mother is giving bread to the child.’ (L. N. K.)
(2b) āŋki lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wəj, ńāń ńēwrem-a məj-təɣ.
mother shop-loc bread buy.pst.3sg bread child-lat give-pst.obj.3sg
‘The mother brought bread and gave it to the child.’ (L. N. K.)
(3) āŋki lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wə-ʌ. āŋki-nə ńēwrem ńāń-at mə-ʌ-i.
mother shop-loc bread buy-prs.3sg mother-loc child bread-ins give-prs-pass.3sg
‘The mother is buying bread in the shop. The mother is giving it to the child.’ (L. N. K.)
In Surgut Khanty, ditransitive verbs have two argument structures. In the typical construction, the recipient takes the accusative case (which is identical to the nominative for nouns), while the object is marked with the -at instructive-finalis suffix (1a). Moreover, the direct object (patient) of monotransitive sentences is also in the accusative, which is structurally identical to the nominative.
In the other construction (which is less frequent), the theme takes the accusative case, while the personal pronominal recipient gets the dative suffix (2a). In order to differentiate between the three arguments of ditransitive verbs, the passive construction is frequently used in Surgut Khanty. In passive sentences, the agent is marked with the -nə locative suffix, the recipient is in the nominative, the patient takes the instructive-finalis case ending, while the recipient is in the nominative (3). If the information structure of sentence enables it, the known object (which is in the nominative-accusative case) is agreed with the verb and thus the verb form follows the determinate conjugation (1b), (2b). The topic requires further research.