(Q): The only structural difference between dependent and independent polar questions is the optional use of a question particle with the former.
Q=or: Dependent polar questions are marked by the coordination, through the use of a question conjunction meaning ‘or,’ of an affirmative sentence and its negative equivalent.
(1a) ʌüw pӯrip-əɣ, mīša əntə pə mät.
he/she ask-pst.3sg Misha neg pcl tired.pst.3sg
‘He/she asked whether Misha was tired.’
(1b) ʌüw pӯrip-əɣ, mīša mät wəs qoti jə-ɣ.
he/she ask-pst.3sg Misha tired.pst.3sg cnj where become-pst.3sg
‘He/she asked whether Misa was tired or what happened.’
(1c) ʌüw pӯrip-əɣ, mīša mät wəs əntə.
he/she ask-pst.3sg Misha tire.pst.3sg cnj neg
‘He/she asked whether Misha was tired or not.’
(2a) ʌüw pӯrip-əɣ, sūp panč wəs əntə.
he/she ask-pst.3sg soup cook.pst.3sg cnj neg
‘He/she asked whether the soup was ready or not.’
(2b) ʌüw pӯrip-əɣ, sūp panč wəs qoti jə-ɣ.
he/she ask-pst.3sg soup cook.pst.3sg cnj where become-pst.3sg
‘He/she asked whether the soup was ready or what happened.’
In Surgut Khanty, dependent/embedded polar questions can be marked with a particle (1a) or a negative morpheme (1c), (2a) at the end of the clause, or with the ‘what happened?’ tag question (1b), (2b). The wәs, müw ‘or’ coordinating conjunctions are also important parts of tag questions.