Marking of function P on pronouns (Surgut Khanty)

Neutr: Case alignment is neutral: the functions S, A, and P are not marked morphologically.

NoPMark: The function P is not explicitly marked, while S, A, or both are marked. P is therefore marked with a zero (∅) morpheme.

PAff: The function P is marked with affixation.

(1a) īki ʌājəm kənč-əʌ.

man axe look_for-prs.3sg

‘The man is looking for the axe.’

(1b) īki ťut kənč-əʌ.

man det look_for-prs.3sg

‘The man is looking for that.’

(1c) qojaɣi īki kənč-əʌ?

who man look_for-prs.3sg

‘Who is the man looking for?’

(1d) īki ʌüw-at kənč-əʌ.

man he/she-acc look_for-prs.3sg

‘The man is looking for him/her.’

(2a) īki-nə ťut kənč-ʌ-i.

man-loc det look_for-prs-pass.3sg

‘This is looked for by the man.’

(2b) nüŋ īki-nə kənč-ʌ-o.

you man-loc look_for-prs-pass.2sg

‘You are looked for by the man.’

In Surgut Khanty, if the P is a noun, it is not marked morphologically, thus the S, the A, and the P functions are coded neutrally (1a). The same can be observed in the case of non-personal pronouns e.g. determiners (1b), and interrogative pronouns (1c). Personal pronouns have accusative forms, hence the PAff value is valid here (1d). In passive constructions, the A is marked with a locative suffix and the P takes the nominative case. Non-personal (2a) and personal pronouns (2b) behave the same way in passive constructions (thus the NoPMark parameter value applies).


Márta Csepregi