NoRMark: The function T is marked explicitly, while the function R is marked with a zero morpheme (∅).
RAff: The function R is marked with the use of an affix (prefix or suffix).
(1) āŋki ńēwrem-əʌ ńāń-at mə-ʌ.
mother child-3sg bread-ins give-prs.3sg
‘The mother gives some bread to her child.’ (L. N. K.)
(2) āŋki ńēwrem-əʌ-a ńāń mə-ʌ.
mother child-3sg-lat bread give-prs.3sg
‘The mother gives bread to me.’ (L. N. K.)
(3) āŋki-nə ńēwrem ńāń-at mə-ʌ-i.
mother-loc child bread-ins give-prs-pass.3sg
‘Bread was given to the child by the mother.’ (L. N. K.)
With ditransitive verbs, there are two kinds of argument structure in Surgut Khanty. The more frequently used version displays the recipient (R) in accusative that is equal to the nominative with nouns, whereas the topic (T) takes the ending of the instructive-finalis -at (1). With the other version, occuring less frequently, the noun in T function is coded by an unmarked accusative and the R takes either a lative ending -a or an approximative ending -nam (2). Passive constructions are frequent in Surgut Khanty as well. With them, the agent is coded with the locative ending -nə, the patient is marked by the instructive ending -at whereas the R stands in nominative (3).