Marking function R on pronouns (Surgut Khanty)

NoRMark: The function T is marked explicitly, while the function R is marked with a zero morpheme (∅).

RAff: The function R is marked with the use of an affix (prefix or suffix).

(1) āŋki mānt ńāń-at mə-ʌ.

mother I.acc bread-ins give-prs.3sg

‘The mother gives bread to me.’ (L. N. K.)

(2) āŋki mān-tem ńāń mə-ʌ.

mother I-dat bread give-prs.3sg

‘The mother gives bread to me.’ (L. N. K.)

(3) āŋki-nə ńāń-at mə-ʌ-oj-əm.

mother-loc I bread-ins give-prs-pass-1sg

‘Bread was given to me by the mother.’ (L. N. K.)

In Surgut Khanty, ditransitive verbs have two argument structures. In the typical construction, the recipient takes the accusative case (which is identical with the nominative for nouns), while the object is marked with the -at instructive-finalis suffix. In the other construction (which is less frequent), the theme takes the accusative case, while the personal pronominal recipient gets the dative suffix (2). The passive construction is also frequent in Surgut Khanty. In the latter construction, the agent is marked with the -nə locative suffix, the patient takes the -at instructive case ending, while the recipient is in the nominative (3).


Márta Csepregi