PR–T: The patient of a monotransitive verb and the recipient of a ditransitive verb are marked the same way; the theme of a ditransitive verb is marked differently.
PT–R: The objects of monotransitive and ditransitive verbs are marked the same way; the recipient is marked differently.
VAgrPTnoR: The verb codes agreement with P and T the same way; agreement with R is not coded.
VAgrPRnoT: The verb codes agreement with P and R the same way; agreement with T is not coded.
(1) īmi lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wə-ʌ. īmi mān-t ńāń-at mə-ʌ.
woman shop-loc bread buy-prs.3sg woman I-acc bread-ins give-prs.3sg
‘The woman is buying bread in the shop. The woman is giving me the bread.’ (L. N. K.)
(2) īmi lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wə-ʌ. īmi mān-tem ńāń mə-ʌ.
woman shop-loc bread buy-prs.3sg woman I-dat bread give-prs.3sg
‘The woman is buying bread in the shop. The woman is giving me (some) bread.’ (L. N. K.)
(3) īmi lɔ̄pka-nə ńāń wə-ʌ. īmi-nə mā ńāń-at mə-ʌ-oj-əm.
woman shop-loc bread buy-prs.3sg woman-loc I bread-ins give-prs-pass-1sg
‘The woman is buying bread in the shop. The woman is giving me bread.’ (L. N. K.)
(4a) mā nüŋ-at ńāń-at mə-ʌ-əm.
I you-acc bread-ins give-prs-1sg
‘I’m giving bread to you.’
(4b) mā nüŋati-ja ńāń mə-ʌ-əm.
I you-lat bread give-prs-1sg
‘I’m giving (some) bread to you.’
(4c) mā nüŋati-ja ńāń mə-ʌ-em.
I you-lat bread give-prs-obj.1sg
‘I’m giving the bread to you.’
In Surgut Khanty, ditransitive verbs have two argument structures. In the typical construction, the recipient takes the accusative case, while the object is marked with the -at instructive-finalis suffix (1). With nouns, there is no difference between nominative and accusative forms, but pronouns do differentiate them. Moreover, the nominal direct object (patient) of monotransitive sentences is also in the accusative, which is morphologically identical to the nominative. In the other construction (which is less frequent), the theme takes the accusative case, while the recipient takes some directional suffix. With nominal recipients, it is the -a lative or the -nam approximant marker, whereas personal pronominal recipients get the dative suffix (2). In order to differentiate between the three arguments of ditransitive verbs, the passive construction is frequently used in Surgut Khanty. In passive sentences, the agent is marked with the -nə locative suffix, the recipient is in the nominative, while the theme takes the instructive-finalis case ending (3). It is the object (nominative case marked nouns or accusative marked personal pronouns) that determines the conjugation of the verbal predicate. The topic requires further research. If the object expresses new information (comment), the verb is conjugated according the indeterminate paradigm (4b); while if it is known (topic), the determinate conjugation is used (4c).