Second-person prohibition (Surgut Khanty)

Proh=ImpNegSpec: Prohibitive and affirmative imperative verb forms are the same, with negation expressed using a different strategy than in negative declarative sentences.

(1) nüŋ jāstə-ʌ-ən.

you speak-prs-2sg

‘You are speaking.’

(2) nüŋ əntə jāstə-ʌ-ən.

you neg speak-prs-2sg

‘You are not speaking.’

(3) jāst-a!



(4) āʌ jāst-a!

imp.neg speak-imp.2sg

‘Don’t speak!’

In Surgut Khanty, negation is coded by the base form of the verb (1) and the әntә ‘not’ negative particle (2). In the imperative mood, the verb takes the imperative suffix (3). Prohibition is expressed by the imperative form of the verb and the āʌ ‘no’ particle (4).


Márta Csepregi