Marking of function A on nouns (Synja Khanty)

Neutr: Case alignment is neutral: the functions S, A, and P are not marked morphologically.

AAff: The function A is marked with affixation.

(1) ńāwrem xɔ̄ll-ǝl.

child cry-prs.3sg

‘The child is crying.’ (S. O.)

(2) ńāwrem uli kaš-l.

child reindeer look_for-prs.3sg

‘The child is looking for the reindeer.’ (S. O.)

(3) ńāwrem śit kaš-l.

child det look_for-prs.3sg

‘The child is looking for that.’ (S. O.)

(4) ńāwrem-ǝn uli kaš-l-a.

child-loc reindeer look_for-prs-pass.3sg

‘The reindeer is looked for by the child.’ (S. O.)

(5) ńāwrem-ǝn śit kaš-l-a.

child-loc det look_for-prs-pass.3sg

‘That is looked for by the child.’ (S. O.)

In Synja Khanty, nouns in the agent (and the subject) function are marked with the zero nominative in the active voice (1), and with the locative suffix in the passive voice (2) (Honti 1984: 88, 93‒96, Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒34, 38‒39, Solovar 2009, 2010). Hence, the marking of the S, A and P roles is neutral in the active voice. Pronominal P’s in the active voice are always marked, while the A is unmarked in the construction. In the passive voice, the pronominal P is unmarked, while the A takes the locative suffix. The verbal suffix refers to the person and number of the subject and the number of the object (S. O., F. L.).


Nikolett F. Gulyás