Marking of function P on pronouns (Synja Khanty)

Neutr: Case alignment is neutral: the functions S, A, and P are not marked morphologically.

PAff: The function P is marked with affixation.

(1) ńāwrem ńax-l.

child laugh-prs.3sg

    ‘The child is laughing’ (S. O.)

(2) ńāwrem   luwel kaš-l-ǝli.

   child (s)he.acc look_for-prs-obj.3sg

    ‘The child is looking for him/her.’ (S. O.)

(3) ńāwrem śit kaš-l.

child det  look_for-prs.3sg

   ‘The child is looking for that.’ (S. O.)

(4) ńāwrem-ǝn luw kaš-l-a.

child-loc (s)he look_for-prs-pass.3sg

   ‘(S)he is looked for by the child.’ (S. O.)

(5) ńāwrem-ǝn śit kaš-l-a.

child-loc det look_for-prs-pass.3sg

‘That is looked for by the child.’ (S. O.)

(6) ńāwrem pisma xanš-l.

    child letter write-prs.3sg

‘The child is writing a letter.’ (S. O.)

(7) ńāwrem-ǝn pisma xanš-l-a.

    child-loc   letter write-prs-pass.3sg

‘The letter is written by the child.’ (F. L.)

In Synja Khanty, the marking of the patient function is divided: pronominal objects are marked (2) by the accusative-dative case, while nominal (6) and non-personal pronoun (3) objects are unmarked. In the passive voice, patient subjects are unmarked (4)-(5), (7). Thus, in the case of personal pronominal P’s, the marked P is formally distinguished from the unmarked S and A roles, while non-personal pronoun P’s are neutrally coded in the active voice (cf. Honti 1983, 1984: 88, 93‒96, Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒34, 38‒39, Solovar 2009: 61‒81, 2010).


Nikolett F. Gulyás