Marking of function A on pronouns (Synja Khanty)

Neutr: Case alignment is neutral: the functions S, A, and P are not marked morphologically.

NoAMark: The function A is not explicitly marked, while S, P, or both are marked. A is therefore marked with a zero (∅) morpheme.

(1) luw xɔ̄ll-ǝl.

(s)he cry-prs.3sg

‘(S)he is crying.’ (S. O.)

(2) luw uli kaš-l.

(s)he reindeer look_for-prs.3sg

‘(S)he is looking for the reindeer.’ (S. O.)

(3) luw śit kaš-l-ǝli.

(s)he det look_for-prs-obj.3sg

‘(S)he is looking for that.’ (S. O.)

(4) luwel-n ńāwrem kaš-l-a.

(s)he-loc child look_for-prs-pass.3sg

‘The child is being looked for by him/her.’ (S. O.)

In Synja Khanty, the S (1) and the A (2)–(3) roles are marked by the nominative case in the active voice, while the A takes the locative suffix in the passive voice (4). In the active voice, the verb agrees with the pronominal S (Honti 1984: 88, 93‒96, Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒34, 38‒39, Solovar 2009, 2010, Kulonen 1989). P’s, when personal pronouns, are marked (3) as opposed to pronominal A’s.


Nikolett F. Gulyás