NoRMark: The function T is marked explicitly, while the function R is marked with a zero morpheme (∅).
RAff: The function R is marked with the use of an affix (prefix or suffix).
(1) ānťe-l (A) ńāwrem-ǝl-a (R) ńāń (T) ma-l.
mother-3sg child-3sg-lat bread give-prs.3sg
‘The mother gives bread to her child.’ (S. O.)
(2) mā (A) ńāwrem (R) ńāń-ǝn (T) ma-l-em.
I child bread-loc give-prs-obj.1sg
‘I’m giving bread to the child.’ (S. O.)
(3) ānťe-l-n (A) ńāwrem-ǝl (R) ńāń-ǝn (T) ma-l-a.
mother-3sg-loc child-3sg bread-loc give-prs-pass.3sg
‘The mother is giving bread to her child.’ (S. O.)
(4) ānť-em-n (A) mā (R) ńāń-ǝn (T) ma-l-ajǝm.
mother-1sg-loc I bread-loc give-prs-pass.1sg
‘My mother is giving bread to me.’ (S. O.)
In Synja Khanty, nominal objects are unmarked (cf. Honti 1984: 88, 93‒96, Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒34, 38‒39, Solovar 2009: 61‒81, 2010). There are two ditransitive constructions in Synja Khanty. In the first construction, the nominal recipient takes the lative case (1), the theme (here: direct object) is in the nominative case (if it is expressed by a noun or a non-personal pronoun), and the verb is used with the indeterminate conjugation. In the second construction, the nominal recipient is unmarked (2), the theme is in the locative case, and the verb form follows the determinate conjugation (cf. Onina 2009, Nikolaeva 1999a: 40, Honti 1984: 96). In the passive voice, the agent always takes a locative suffix. The nominal (3) and the pronominal (4) recipients are typically in the nominative, while the theme takes a locative suffix which functions as an instrumental in the construction. The verb of the passive construction always agrees with the nominative case marked argument (S. O., F. L.).