Neutr: Case alignment is neutral: the functions S, A, and P are not marked morphologically.
(1) pox ńax-l.
‘The boy is laughing.’ (S. O.)
(2) ńāwrem pisma xanš-l.
child letter write-prs.3sg
‘The child is writing a letter.’ (S. O.)
(3) ńāwrem-ǝn pisma xanš-l-a.
child-loc letter write-prs-pass.3sg
‘The letter is written by the child.’ (S. O.)
(4) pox šaŋkǝp-l-a.
‘The boy is sweating.’ (S. O.)
In Synja Khanty, the S in the active voice takes the nominative case (1) just like the A (2). The verb is agreed with the S in number and person (Honti 1984: 88, 93‒96, Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒34, 38‒39, Solovar 2009, 2010, Kulonen 1989). In the passive voice, the A is marked by the locative case (3). Perception and change-of-state verbs often appear in passive constructions where the S is in the nominative. This structural preference is probably due to the fact that these events are not initiated by conscious actors (M. L., S. O., F. L.).