Parapassive constructions (Synja Khanty)

DiParapassPass: In a diparapassive structure (two nouns + passive verb form derived from an intransitive verb), the agent (the “additional noun”, marking the causer of the event) is treated identically to the agent in an equivalent passive construction.

(1) ūtalta-ti nēŋ-ǝn luw ji-l-a.

teach-ptc.prs woman-loc (s)he come-prs-pass.3sg

‘The teacher is coming to him/her.’

(2) pox šaŋkǝp-l-a.

boy sweat-prs-pass.3sg

‘The boy is sweating.’ (S. O.)

In Synja Khanty, intransitive verbs can also appear in passive sentences (Nikolaeva 1999a: 30‒33, Kulonen 1989: 71‒73, Honti 1983, 1984). The agent of the intransitive verb takes the locative case, just like in transitive passive constructions. The other nominal of the clause is in the nominative. Furthermore, compulsory argument of psychological and change-of-state verbs (typically the experiencer) also takes the nominative case (2).


Nikolett F. Gulyás