Politeness distinction in pronouns (Synja Khanty)

PolitNoPn: Pronoun avoidance. Certain languages do not use pronouns to express politeness, but have a rich inventory of other strategies for expressing the distinction.

(1a) ivan, jox-i joxt-a!

Ivan home-lat come-imp.2sg

’Ivan, come home!' (S. O.) (informal)

(1b) ivan, naŋ jox-i joxt-a!

ivan you home-lat come-imp.2sg

’Ivan, come home!' (S. O.) (informal)

(2) ivan ivanovič, jox-i joxt-a!

Ivan Ivanovich home-lat come-imp.2sg

’Ivan Ivanovich, please come home!’ (S. O.) (formal)

Politeness is expressed by the way people are addressed in Synja Khanty (1)-(2). If the interlocutors are in a special kinship relationship (e.g. the father-in-law and the daughter-in-law), they can only call each other with third person singular forms (S. O.).


Nikolett F. Gulyás