Reciprocal constructions (Synja Khanty)

RcprNonRefl: Reciprocity is expressed with a single verb; the grammatical encoding of reciprocity is different than that of reflexivity.

(1) lin i jaxa ūl-l-ǝŋǝn.

they.du and each_other be-prs-3du

‘They love each other.’ (S. O.)

(2) oľga unti i jaxa ūl-l-ǝŋǝn.

Olga and Ivan and each_other be-prs-3du

‘Olga and Ivan love each other.’ (S. O.)

(3) lin kut-lǝn lāwlas-l-ǝŋǝn.

they.du between-du.3du wait-prs-3du

‘They wait for each other.’ (S. O.)

(4) oľga unti kut-lǝn lāwlas-l-ǝŋǝn.

Olga and Ivan between-du.3du wait-prs-3du

’Olga and Ivan wait for each other.’ (S. O.)

(5) imi luwel wēš wan-ti ot-ən wanla-l-li.

woman she.acc face look_at-prs.ptc thing-loc look_at-prs-obj.3sg

‘The woman is looking at herself in the mirror.’ (S. O.)

In Synja Khanty, mutuality is expressed by the i jaxa ‘and each other’ construction (1)–(2) or the personal suffixed form of the kut ‘between’ postposition (3)–(4). The expression of reciprocity differs from the way reflexivity is coded. The latter is expressed by a personal pronoun which is agreed with the person and number of the subject (5) (S. O.). The topic requires further research.


Nikolett F. Gulyás