Second-person prohibition (Synja Khanty)

Proh=ImpNegSpec: Prohibitive and affirmative imperative verb forms are the same, with negation expressed using a different strategy than in negative declarative sentences.

(1a) naŋ tuta ɔ̄mǝs-l-ǝn.

you there sit-prs-2sg

‘You are sitting there.’ (S. O.)

(1b) naŋ tuta at ɔ̄mǝs-l-ǝn.

you there neg sit-prs-2sg

‘You are not sitting there’ (S. O.)

(2a) toxi ɔ̄ps-a!

there sit-imp.2sg

‘Sit there!’ (Onina 2009: 51)

(2b) āl ɔ̄ps-a!

imp.neg sit-imp.2sg

‘Don’t sit down! (Honti 1984: 89)

In Synja Khanty, prohibition is marked by the negative particle āl ‘no’, while negation is expressed by the negative particles at, anta, antǝ, antǝm (Honti 1984: 93, Nikolaeva 1999a: 23, Sz. Kispál ‒ F. Mészáros 1980: 38). Next to āl, the verb is in the same form as in affirmative imperative sentences.


Nikolett F. Gulyás