Word order of adverbs (Synja Khanty)

Adv1: The adverb precedes the first transitive argument; for example, AdvSVO for SVO sentences, AdvSOV for SOV sentences, etc.

Adv2: The adverb follows the first transitive argument and precedes the second; for example, SAdvVO for SVO sentences, SAdvOV for SOV sentences, etc.

Adv3: The adverb follows the second transitive argument and precedes the third; for example, SVAdvO for SVO sentences, SOAdvV for SOV sentences, etc.

Adv4: The adverb follows the third transitive argument; for example, SVOAdv for SVO sentences, SOVAdv for SOV sentences, etc.

(1) in pox nēpǝk luŋǝt-l.

now boy book read-prs.3sg

‘Now, the boy is reading a book.’

(2) pox in nēpǝk luŋǝt-l.

boy now book read-prs.3sg

‘The boy is reading a book now.’

(3) pox nēpǝk in tū-l.

boy book now bring-prs.3sg

‘The boy is bringing a book now.’

(4) pox nēpǝk tū-l in.

boy book bring-prs.3sg now

‘The boy is bringing a book now.’

In Synja Khanty, the subject is typically at the beginning of the sentence, while the predicate is at the end with the object preceding it. Temporal terms are usually put at the beginning of the sentence (1), or between the subject and the object (2). The adverbial can also appear between the object and the predicate (3) (cf. Honti 1984: 88‒89, Nikolaeva 1999a: 57‒64, Solovar 2009: 73‒77), but it is unlikely to appear after the verb, at the end of the sentence – cf., nevertheless, (4) (S.O.). The topic requires further research.


Nikolett F. Gulyás