Case syncretism is the paradigmatic synthesis of case; multiple case functions are marked by the same form. In languages that display case syncretism of pronouns, the nominal paradigm includes a greater number of case functions than the pronominal paradigm, and, therefore, the same form may be used in the pronominal paradigm to express distinct case functions. For the purpose of this parameter, cases (specific case functions) are considered to be all inflectional categories in which at least some nominally and pronominally inflected forms differ from the rest of the paradigm. If personal pronouns can be inflected in multiple ways, the richest paradigm should be considered.
NoCase: The language does not use case marking.
NoPPCase: Case marking exists but is not applied to personal pronouns.
PP=NCase: Personal pronouns are marked for case, and the paradigm is identical to that of nouns.
PPSyncCase: The number of case-marked forms of personal pronouns differs from that of nouns, and at least one pronominal form is syncretic.
PPNoSyncCase: The number of case-marked forms of personal pronouns differs from that of nouns, but none are syncretic.
 Compare to exponence, which is the syntagmatic synthesis of cases.
 Suppletive forms should also be considered part of the pronominal paradigm. (For example, in Hungarian tőlem (‘from me’) is considered the ablative form of én (‘I’).)