This parameter investigates the appearance of co-referent, independent personal pronouns (PP) along with the nominal subject in neutral sentences (no focus), a phenomenon comparable to agreement (Agr).
NoPP: Independent PPs that can replace the subject do not exist.
PP=Agr: The nominal subject is generally accompanied by a corresponding independent PP in the nominative case.
PPNotAgr: The nominal subject is generally not accompanied by a corresponding independent PP in the nominative case.
 A personal pronoun is considered independent if it can be used without a verb – for example, in response to questions like Who is the oldest? Who’s there? Who can do it? – or if it appears in a sentence with a verb but is not immediately next to it. Even if multiple personal pronouns appear in reference to the agent, only one is independent, and only it is considered in terms of this parameter.
 Independent personal pronouns should not be confused with other, unstressed dependent words that are in fact elements of verbal conjugation. The latter may be required while independent personal pronouns are not.