A copula is type of verb or affix that is an obligatory element in a predicative sentence in the case of nonverbal (nominal, adverbial) predicates. In its base form, the copula has no meaning other than its predicative function; if it is an independent word, it is generally the same as the substantive verb ‘be.’ The base form is found to appear in sentences that fulfill the following four criteria: a) stative-like, b) declarative mood, c) present tense and/or the least marked (most neutral) aspect, and d) appear in third-person singular. Copula type is determined by the relationship of the copula to the lexical verb. (Lexical verbs express meaning other than, or in addition to, copulative function.)
NoCop: The language does not have a copula.
Cop=VInfl: The copula, when explicit, is inflected just as lexical verbs.
CopNoVInfl: The copula, when explicit, is not inflected, unlike lexical verbs.
Cop=VNotInfl: Neither the copula nor lexical verbs are inflected.
CopNoV: The copula is an independent word but not a verb.
Cop=Aff: The copula is an affix.
When a language displays more than one type, two values can be listed. If one type is structurally dominant, a slash (/) can separate the two values, with the dominant value appearing first; if neither is dominant, the two are listed with an ampersand (&) separating the two.
 This means that only the predicate is expressed in present tense or as a general statement.
 Predication of nonverbal lexical elements by verbal affixation should be listed here, such as predicative nouns and adjectives displaying verbal inflection. These constructions should be detailed in the commentary.