The repetition of phonological material (segments) within a word for semantic or grammatical purposes[1] is known as reduplication.[2] Its use is only typologically relevant when productive.


NoRdp:  Reduplication is not used productively.

TtlRdp:  Total reduplication of an entire word, relative stem, or absolute stem (root) is used productively.

PrtRdpSim: Partial reduplication[3] is used productively, and the reduplication is simple; i.e., the duplicate is identical to the segment duplicated.

PrtRdpCpl: Partial reduplication is used productively, and the reduplication is complex, with the duplicate showing different phonological material, such as vowel or consonant change or morpheme order reversal.

PrtRdpAut: Partial reduplication is productive and obligatory but does not carry grammatical or semantic meaning; its use is required with use of another affix without adding meaning to the construction.


[1] Reduplication has many functions; even within a single language its uses can vary for different word classes (e.g., with verbs: tense, aspect, mood, frequentativity, causativity, reflexivity, reciprocity; with nouns: number, case, distributivity, indefiniteness, reciprocity, size  diminutive, augmentative, associated quality; with numerals: collective, distributive, multiplicative, limitative; any word class: change of word class). The function can be described in detail in the commentary.

[2] Not only duplication but triplication can also occur, albeit rarely. Such cases should be noted in the commentary.

[3] This may be realized in a number of ways, such as simple consonant gemination or vowel lengthening to a nearly complete copy of a base. Reduplicated material is most often found at the beginning of a word but occurs also in medial and final position. The phonological structure of a reduplicated segment can be C, CV, CVC, V, CVCV, etc. Reduplications can differ in the number of the repeated syllables or morae. The reduplicated segment may be identical to the original or a modified form of it. Further details should be included in the commentary.