Use of copula with adverbial predicate

A copula is a type of obligatory verb or affix that appears in a nonverbal (nominal, adverbial) predicative sentence. In its base form, the copula has no meaning other than its predicative function; if it is an independent word, it is generally the same as the substantive verb ‘be.’ Use of the copula may differ for nonverbal predicates. This parameter is examined in the case of sentences containing nominal or pronominal subjects in the nominative case (or their simplest form) and adverbial predicates. The prototypical adverbial predicate to be considered here is that which indicates time or place.[1]

Such sentences are first examined in their base form. This refers to sentences that are a) stative-like[2], b) declarative mood, c) present tense and/or the least marked (most neutral) aspect, and d) appear in third-person singular. These are referred to as unmarked predicative forms. If such sentences include any required items in addition to the subject and adverbial, the language has a copula. If the sentences do not include such required items, sentences with marked predicate forms should be examined instead. If the copula is not found to appear in these cases either, it is likely that the language does not have a copula at all[3]. If it does appear, however, the sentence without a visible copula can be considered to have a zero copula.


NoCop: The language has no copula.

AdvNoCop: The copula cannot be used with adverbial predicates indicating time or place (but is used for nominal and/or adjectival predicates).

AdvCopNonPres: The copula does occur with adverbial predicates, with the exception of unmarked predicate forms.[4]

AdvCop: Use of the copula with adverbial predicates is always required.


[1] Examples of such adverbial predicates include the following: It’s here, It’s in Budapest, It’s now, It’s Monday.

[2] This means that, in present tense or as a general statement, only the predicative function is expressed. Copulative verbs that contain additional information besides their copular function (such as progressiveness, change, or the lack thereof) are not considered to be copulas from a typological point of view, because these verbs can also be found in languages that do not feature a purely predicative form of the copula.

[3] This can be verified if it is also true for the use of a copula with a nominal or adjectival predicate. See the following parameters: Copula use with a nominal predicate, Copula use with an adjectival predicate.

[4] The language does actually use copulas with adverbial predicates; however, the zero morpheme of the copula is used in sentences that fulfill criteria a) through d).