Morphology of the imperative

The existence of a specific (morphologically dedicated) imperative form in the second-person singular and/or plural constitutes a basis for typological classification. The imperative paradigm of a language may display the same or different forms for the second-person singular and plural[1], as well as same and different forms for the imperative and the declarative[2].


NoImpSpec: The form used for the second-person imperative is not distinct from that of the declarative.

ImpSpec: The second person has a specific imperative form, but there is no distinction between singular and plural.

ImpSpecSgSpecPl: Second-person singular and plural each have a specific imperative form.

ImpSpecSgNonspecPl: Second-person singular has a specific imperative form, while second-person plural does not.

ImpNonspecSgSpecPl: Second-person plural has a specific imperative, while second-person singular does not.


[1] This parameter does not consider the existence of non-binary grammatical numbers, such as dual, trial, etc.

[2] Even if the imperative form is identical to the conjunctive or infinitive form, it is still considered a specific form as long as it differs from the declarative.